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EFFECTS OF KARGASOK TEA ON BLOOD PRESSURE OF NORMOTENSIV MAN

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EFFECTS OF KARGASOK TEA ON BLOOD PRESSURE OF NORMOTENSIV MAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
LIST OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1 SOURCE AND HISTORY OF KARGASOK TEA
1.2 PHARMACOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF KARGASOK TEA
1.3 NORMAL REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE
1.4 ETIOLOGY OF HYPERTENSION
1.5 BASIC PHARMACOLOGY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH PROJECT
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 MATERIAL AND METHODS
2.1 PREPARATION OF KARGASOK TEA
2.2 QUESTIONNAIRES OF KARGASOK TEA
2.3 HUMAN EXPERIMENT
2.4 SATISTICAL ANALYSIS
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS
3.2 KARGASOK TEA
3.3 BLOOD PRESSURE OF HUMANS
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 DISCUSSIONS
4.1 BLOOD PRESSURE
5. APPENDIX 1-KARGASOK TEA
6. APPENDIX II – QUESTIONNAIRE FOR USERS OF KARGASOK TEA
7. REFERENCES

ABSTRACT
Kargasok tea is a Russian tea that is alleged to reduce blood pressure and other ailments. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of this tea on humans, specifically on humans with normal blood pressure (ranging between
 100 – 120 mmttg)
    70    80
          Kargasok tea was prepared as described by Fan pen (1988). 7 student volunteers from the college of Health sciences, University of Port Harcourt, aged between 22 -26 years and weighing 62.2 – 90 kg were given 150ml of Kargasok tea to drink twice daily for one week. Blood pressure of each volunteer was measured thrice daily for one week prior to the investigation, throughout the study and one week after the investigation.
        At the end of the study, kargasok tea caused moderate but significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure of normotensive humans.
        This study suggests that toxic effects may manifest on long term consumption of the tea; therefore further investigations are required in order to ascertain the extent of the tea on the physiological parameters in humans.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1      SOURCE AND HISTORY OF KARGASOK TEA
Largasok tea is a home brewed tea popularly known as tea of life, multipurpose tea and magic panacea of human ailments (Oduja 1988). It is an alcoholic beverage derived by fermentation of a yeast got from Kargasok in Russia.
          It has been reported that about 6 years ago, a Japanese lady went to Kargasok in Russia for a visit and discovered many healthy old people, all of them over 100 years. Old but were still having babies; incidence of cancer and hypertension among the populace was also negligible. She found that both young and old alike in every home made and drank a special tea (about 300ml daily).
          This lady obtained a piece of the special yeast used in preparing the Kargasok tea and instructions on the preparations and went back to Japan. In Japan she proceeded to make the tea and invited her friends to drink it, and in turn presented them with pieces of the yeast and how to prepare the tea. After drinking the tea for a while her friends came back to testify to their better health from drinking the tea. In fact, man with blood pressure of 210/140, got it decreased to 140/80.
          This tea became a conversation piece on television and radio in Japan. It eventually went to Taiwan, then Hong Kong, and now to the far corners of the world including Nigeria; from one friend to another as mark of love and esteem. (see appendix 2). In Japan, Fan Pen, (1988) showed that the tea had a cure for chicken pox ringworms, cancer, bad eyesight, joint and back pains, arthritis, ulcer, liver disorder and gall stone. The tea could also improve appetite, reduce obesity, prevent car, air and sea sickness and diarrhoea. It prevented menopause, prolonged sex life, cured piles, insomnia and strengthened the kidney. It is not clear whether these findings were through experimental observations or mere alleged claims (see appendix 2 )
          In Nigeria, this tea is now consumed by an increasing fraction of health conscious people. The tea became a conversation piece on television and radio and newspapers. A lot of well-meaning Nigerians have publicly acknowledged the beneficial effects of the tea on their health though with little or no scientific back-up.
1.2      PHARMACOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF KARGASOK TEA
          There has been no published report about the active components of the tea by any scientist. But because of the requirements of the tea by any scientist. But because of the requirement for its preparation it may likely contain yeast, methyl xanthines, sugar, alcohol, lactic acid and acetic acid.
(a) YEAST:
          Generally, yeasts are quantitatively and economically the most important group of microorganisms commercially exploited by men. Most yeasts are unicellular and generally larger than bacterial cells. They are useful in food and beverages, industrial chemicals and in the production of vitamins and carotenoids.
          There are well over a 150 species of Yeast and Yeast forms. The rarest forms have affirmed curative properties. For instance the Chinese royal Yeast in the day of the great emperors is still used as an elixir of life (Esubiyi, 1989).
          From unpublished reports, the Yeast brought from Kargasok in Russia has been found to belong to Saccharomyces celevisea and saccharomyces cailsbeingenesis species. Some peculiar features of the Yeast include a round brownish, rubbery consistency; it does not produce hyphae or myceliua. The cultures of the yeast on sabourand destrose agar are soft with characteristic Yeasty colour. The yeast ce4lls produce both sexually and asexually (Okerentugba, 1988). Isolation studies carried out showed that this Yeast contain eleven (11) different species (Okerentugba et al 1988). Isolation studies carried out showed that this Yeast contain eleven (11) different species (Okerentugba et al 1988).
          The pharmacological importance of the Yeast lies in the fact that, Saccharomyces, celevisea, saccharomyces hiphytica are good sources of invertase, lactase, lipase enzyme, water soluble vitamin and carotenoids (Phaff 1981). These substance are necessary for metabolism and enhancement of biochemical processes in the body.
(b) METHYL XANTHINES:
          The methyl xanthines are got from the tea used in preparing the brew. It contains three major compounds: theophylline, caffeine and theobromine in the order of ddecreasing efficacy. These compounds cause stimulations of central nervous system and antisoportific effect. The stimulant effect can elevate mood, decrease fatigue and increase capacity for work. On the cardiovascular system, the xanthines have both direct positive chronotropine and inotropic effects on the heart. They also relax vascular smooth muscle except in cerebral blood vessels where they cause contraction which may relieve headache. Other associated effect include bronchodilatation, mild diuresis, and stimulation of secretion of both gastric acid and digestive enzymes and increase basal metabolic rate (Acheron et al 1980).
          The mechanism of action by which these effects ate produced is by inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodies terase enzymes thereby increasing the concentration of CAMP. The xanthines at the same time antagonise receptor mediated actions of adenosine which modulate adenylate cyclase activity.
© ALCOHOL:
Alcohol is got as an end product of lactic –alcohol – acetic acid fermentation of the sugar in the tea by the special Yeast. The percentage however has not been discerned. Acute alcohol consumption is more markedly affected in the CNS than any other organs. Such effect can lead to sedation and relief of anxiety.
          Its site of action is the cell membrane where it reduces the viscosity of (fluideinzes) membrane of many types of cells. Fluidization affects specific membrane functions including neurotransmitter receptors for dopamine, norepine – phrine, glutamate and opinoids; enzymes such as Na+K+ ATpase, ca2+- ATpase, 51 neucleotidase, acetylcholinesterae and adenylate cyclase, mitochondrial electron and ion transport chain (Lee and Smith, 1986). These effects contribute to depression of myocardial contractility, vasodilator effect, increased gastric emptying (Cooke, 1972) and mortality in the second part of the duodenum (Pirda and Dave, 1970). Alcohol also increases modestly hepatic blood flow; cause diuresis due to inhibition of the release of antidiuretic hormone and promotion of gastric secretion.
1.3      NORMAL REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE
According to the hydraulic equation, arterial blood pressure (BP) is directly proportionate to the product of the rate of blood flow (cardiac output, Co) and the resistance to passage of blood through precapillary arterioles (peripheral vascular resistance, PVR).
BP     =        CO x PVR
Physiologically in both normal and hypertensive individuals, blood pressure is maintained by moment to moment regulation of cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance, exerted at 4 anatomical sites: arterioles, postcapillary venules (Capacitance vessels), heart and the kidney. Baroreflexes mediated by sympathetic nerves, act in combination with humoral mechanism, including the renin, act in combination with humoral mechanism, including the renin – angiotensin – andosterone system, to co-ordinate function at these anatomical sites and maintain normal blood pressure {see fig 1. And fig. 2 }.
1.4      ETHOLOGY OF HYPERTENSION
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a silent mysterious killer; silent because it has no characteristic symptoms, mysterious because in more than 90% of cases the cause is not known. It may be due to renal artery constriction, coarctation of the aorta, phaechromocytoma, cushing disease and primary hyperaldosteronism. Patients in whom no specific cause of hypertension can be found are said to have essential hypertension. In most cases, elevated blood pressure is associated with an overall increase in resistance to flow of blood through arteriles, while cardiac output is usually normal. Meticulous investigation of autonomic nervous system function, baroreceptor reflexes, the renin – angiotensin – aldosterone system, and the kidney has failed to identify a primary abnormality as the cause of increased peripheral vascular resistance in essential hypertension.
Elevated blood pressure is usually caused by a combination of several abnormalities (multifactorial). Epidemiologic evidence points to genetic inheritance, psychologic stress, and environmental and dietary factor (increased salt and perhaps decreased calcium intake) as perhaps contributing to the development of hypertension. Hypertension brings about death as a result of complications such as stroke, heart attack, heart failure or even kidney disease.
1.5      BASIC PHARMACOLOGY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS
All antihypertensive agents act at one or more of the four anatomic control sites shown in fig 1., and produce their effects by interfering with normal mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. The benefits of antihypertensive therapy include; decrease in the incidence of haemorrhagic stroke, cardiac failure (low output), hypertensive renal failure or avoidance of malignant or accelerated hypertension.
          A useful classification of these agents categorises them according to the principal regulatory site or mechanism on which they act. Because of their common mechanisms of action, drugs within each category tend to produce similar spectrum of toxicity. The categories include the following: Diuretics, direct vasodilators sympatholytic agents and inhibitors of renin angiotensin system.
1.6      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEACH OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT
Kargasok tea is used by a good number of people for different reasons. But there has not been any published toxicological and beneficial findings about the tea. This study is a preliminary study of the effect of Kargasok tea on human blood pressure and it is intended to arouse the interest of the scientific world about effects of the tea on specific physiological parametres in humans.


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